Wednesday, November 30, 2011


Israel's Heron TP

Drones have had a profound effect on the way America fights its wars, allowing it to fight in new theaters while minimizing the risk to troops. The U.S. has used drones for decades, with early versions flown during World War II and the Vietnam War. But over the past decade, the Defense Department's development and production of drones has rapidly increased. The U.S. military has gone from having just a few drones at the outset of the Iraq War to now over 7,000.
And we're not alone, not by a long shot. The lure of enduring overhead surveillance and strike capability at a safe remove -- and at a relative bargain -- is just as appealing to the rest of the world's militaries as it is to us. Sure, American drone technology is a sought-after brand on the international arms market, but other countries have and increasingly are developing their own platforms. Allies like Israel and adversaries like Iran have used reconnaissance drones in combat since the 1980s and continue to turn out new models. China is taking its lead from American drone models with knockoff Predators and Global Hawks.
Today, more than 50 countries are using or developing unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs. Here are some of the most interesting.

Israel's Heron TP

The Heron TP (a.k.a. "Eitan"), built by Israeli Aerospace Industries, boasts an impressive array of features. It can fly for up to 36 hours at heights of over 40,000 feet carrying a payload of over a ton. For snooping from above, the Heron is chocked full of sensors and reconnaissance gear, including forward-looking infrared, laser ranger finder, electro-optical, maritime patrol and synthetic aperture radar, among others. Significantly, it's also capable of carrying weapons and can reach targets as far away as Iran. The Heron might even lead an attack on the Mullahs' nuclear facilities, jamming cellphone networks and spoofing air defense systems.
It's a step up from its predecessor, the similarly titled Heron-1 reconnaissance drone. Unarmed, it can fly for four hours longer than its more advanced cousin and carries only a quarter of the payload. Still, the original Heron has proven a popular export around the world, providing Medium-Altitude Long-Endurance unmanned spying capability to India, Turkey, Brazil and other countries. Israel successfully leveraged sales of the Heron-1 to a drone-hungry Russia in order to dissuade it from arming Iran with sophisticated air defense missiles.
Israel's been a leader in drone technology for quite some time now, even supplying America with a fair share of its robotic planes. (U.S. drone maintenance crews used to have to learn Hebrew is order to keep the UAVs flying.) In early October, the Israeli Air Force celebrated the 40th anniversary of its first drone unit, Squadron 200. The unit was created in order to help the Israeli air force spy on neighboring air defense missiles without risk to pilots. Squadron 200 first used an Israeli-modified version of the U.S. Ryan Firebee UAV, the Firebee 1241, bought from the U.S. in 1970. Following the Yom Kippur war in 1973, Israel purchased a number of other American UAVs and began developing one of its own reconnaissance models, the Scout, which became operational in June of 1981.
Photo: IDF

China's Pterodactyl I

China's notorious for being awash in pirated goods, but the copycat trend isn't limited just to consumer goods. They've been making knockoff American drones since the 1960s. Consider one of the latest imitations, the Pterodactyl I. Look familiar? It's China's version of an armed Predator drone. If you've always wanted one, but could never convince America to sell it to you, you're in luck: the Pterodactyl is available for export. Roughly the same size as the Predator, Chinese officials claim it has similar capabilities, with a 20 hour maximum endurance (compared to the Predator's 24) and the ability to carry about 10 pounds less than the Predator's 450 pound payload. The Pterodactyl apparently imitates another Predator feature, too: it crashes. Photos of what appears to be a crashed Pterodactyl in Hebei Province, China surfaced late this summer.
Just because China copies American drones, though, doesn't mean it operates a UAV force with the same capabilities as the U.S. military. It's still behind in developing the engine technology, communications satellites and human capital necessary to support a drone fleet on par with Uncle Sam's.

China's Soaring Dragon

The armed Predator isn't the only American drone China's tried to copy. The Soaring Dragon ("Xianglong") is China's spin on America's high-altitude, long endurance Global Hawk reconnaissance drone. A project of China's Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute and Guizhou Aviation Group, the HQ-4 even mimics the Global Hawk's designation, RQ-4. Pictures, video and models of the Chinese drone show it imitates the Global Hawk's distinctive shape with a long, thin wings, a top-mounted rear engine and rounded nose scoop.
The Xianglong flies shy of the Block 10 model Global Hawk's 65,000 foot maximum height at 57,000 feet, but with a roughly 4,300 mile range doesn't come close to the Global Hawk's approximately 14,000 mile range. Not much is known about what specific kinds of sensors and spy gear the Xianglong will carry. China has already taken the Xianglong out for a spin with a November 2009 test flight.
Despite its namesake, China's Soaring Dragon is a surveillance drone and won't be raining fire on enemies -- at least not directly. It's believed to be intended for maritime use, pointing out targets at sea for China's anti-ship missiles.

Iran's Swallow

Iran's Swallow

Just because it's under sanctions, doesn't mean Iran is going without when it comes to military drone technology. It's been flying drones since the late 1980s, during the Iran-Iraq war.
First produced in 1993, most Ababil ("Swallow") models are designed for reconnaissance. The Ababil-T, though, comes equipped with a high explosive warhead. The drones can be launched either by a rocket or pneumatic system and can return to ground using a parachute or skids. Ababils are controlled remotely by radio telemetry and operate in autopilot using GPS and an interial navigation system.
Ababil variants have shown up in the skies over a few Middle Eastern conflicts in recent years. In early 2009, U.S. forces in Iraq spotted an Ababil-3 crossing the border from Iran into Iraq and tracked the UAV for over an hour before shooting it down. During the 2006 Lebanon war, the Israeli air force downed an Ababil-T supplied to Hezbollah while it was flying over Haifa.
But Iran isn't just coasting on its holdover drone technology from the 80s and 90s.. Iran's been ramping up drone production and research recently, exploring new kinds of homegrown unmanned systems.

Russia's Stork

Russia's been a fairly eager customer of Israeli UAV technology, but it's also been trying to develop some new drones of its own. Take the Stork ("Aist"), for example. Russia had hoped the Stork would be capable of a variety of missions. With a maximum payload of 1,100 lbs, it was supposed to conduct reconnaissance and point out targets for the Iskander-M short range ballistic missile system. Russia even hoped for an armed version that capable of strikes. It was supposed to do all this, that is, until it literally crashed and burned on the runway during testing in early 2010.

India's Rustom

India's Rustom

Rustom is India's homegrown Medium-Altitude Long-Endurance drone. Developed by India's Aeronautic Development Establishment, it's expected to come in three different variants. The Rustom-1 and Rustom-H are surveillance models. The smaller Rustom-1 has already passed five test flights and will have a 12-14 hour endurance. The the larger H-model will fly for twice that long at 24 hours. Its surveillance kit includes day and night eletro optic sensors, synthetic aperture radar and maritime patrol radar as well as electronic and communications intelligence sensors. There's also an armed variant of the Rustom in the works, the Rustom-C, based on the H-model. If successful, the Rustom program will help India fill out its fleet with homemade models of long endurance drones, replacing its fleet of Israeli-made Herons.
Photo: Wikipedia

Israel's AirMule

Reconnaissance and attack aren't the only missions drones can be useful for. Developed and funded by Israel's Urban Aeronautics Ltd., the AirMule drone program is designed to ferry cargo, medevac the wounded and resupply troops in areas where conventional aircraft can't go. AirMule flies using ducted fans, giving it vertical take-off and landing ability as well as a unique Star Wars-style landspeeder appearance. Sure, AirMule looks like a movie prop. But Israel's Air Force and Medical Corps have reportedly expressed interest in purchasing the hover drone.

Germany's Barracuda

Germany's Barracuda

Developed by the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) for Germany and Spain, the EADS Barracuda is an experimental attempt at a UCAV with some stealth features. The demonstrator was first revealed to the public in 2006. It quickly ran into trouble when the only existing demonstrator crashed that year during flight test. EADS said it wouldn't continue the program, but later reversed itself.  The drone reportedly comes equipped with radar absorbing materials. It's capable of carrying a range of infrared and electro optical sensors and synthetic aperture radar.
A number of European have been toying with stealth killer drone demonstrators in recent years. Britain's BAE is working on the delta-shaped, stealth Taranis strike drone demonstrator. France's Dassault Aviation is leading a consortium of Italian, Greek, Spanish, Swedish and Swiss companies working on the nEUROn demonstrator, again delta-shaped, stealth and armed. So if you're planning on pitching Europeans on a drone design, remember: weapons, triangles and stealth features are your best selling points.
Photo: yyzphillip/Flickr

China's Dark Sword

China's Dark Sword

Dark Sword is China's concept for a fast-flying killer drone. Precise details about the combat drone are hard to come as China has only given sneak peeks of the program. Still, pictures, models and comments by Chinese official portray Dark Sword as aiming for stealth capability and intended for air-to-air combat. The triangular-shaped design with apparently retractable canards leads many to assume China is hoping the Dark Sword would be capable of long range missions and supersonic speeds.
Photo: Pakistan Defence Forum

Israel's Harpy

Israel's Harpy

Israel's Harpy exists in the space somewhere between a missile and an attack drone. The vehicle-launched system loiters in the air for hours looking for enemy radar systems. Once it detects an enemy air defense radar, it dives straight for the source of the signal, detonating its warhead in the air above to destroy it.
Israel has exported the Harpy to a number of countries, but its exports to China briefly landed it in hot water with the Defense Department. In 2004, Israel planned to upgrade Harpy drones it had sold to China in the 1990s, to the loud objection of the United States. Israel ultimately scuttled the upgrade plans, and the Defense Department gave it a short time-out from the international consortium building the F-35 stealth jet.
Photo: Wikipedia

Iran's Striker

Iran's Striker

Iran rolled out Karrar, its long distance bomber drone, in 2010 with much fanfare. Iranian officials claim the jet-powered drone can carry about 500lbs worth of weapons – configured either for two 250 lb bombs or a single 500 lb one – with a range of about 600 miles. Observers argue over whether the Karrar ("Striker") is more a copy of America's MQM-107 Streaker drone from the mid-1970s or the South African Denel Dynamics Skua, first developed in the 1980s. That would make it less the "ambassador of death" Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmedinejad hailed it as and more an envoy of the past

Monday, November 28, 2011

Human Combustion

This letter appears in an English journal in 1800 relating to events on 10 April 1744. It is an interesting document because it combines two paranormal facts typically kept apart: witchcraft and spontaneous human combustion.
The following narrative will probably amuse some of your readers: though many may think it is a falsehood, it is an absolute fact and there are still living, in this town [Ipswich, Suffolk], witnesses to the truth of it… Grace Pett, about 60 years of age, the wife of a fisherman, at Ipswich was burnt, in a supernatural or miraculous manner, to ashes. When her husband was at sea, one of her daughters used to sleep with her: the mother had a custom for several years of going down stairs every night when she was half undrest, on some private occasion; and on the night preceding the above day she went down as usual, and her daughters fell asleep. When she awoke it [sic] the morning, finding her mother was not come down to bed, she ran down in a fright, and found her, about half on the hearth, and half on the deal floor: the floor was not hurt by the fire, nor were her feet and ankles burnt; neither did they appear to be hurt by the fire. Her daughter said she had no other apparel on her beside her cap, shift, a cotton gown, an upper petticoat, stockings and shoes which certainly could not be thought sufficient fuel to reduce a human body to ashes in a natural way. Mrs Pett had a daughter who came home from Gibraltar on the preceding day. They had been making merry on the occasion, drank plentifully of gin, and sat up late; which accounts for her daughter’s sleepiness.
The gin might account for more than her daughter’s failure to wake up! However, what is really extraordinary here is the way that witchcraft now threads into this already curious tale.
The poor old woman had the reputation of being a witch among some of her ignorant neighbours; and at that time a neighbouring farmer, one Garnnham, had some of his sheep taken in an odd way: they were supposed to be betwitched, and he was advised to burn one of them. The farmer was too wise to entertain such an idea; but his wife, more credulous in such matters, resolved to try the experiment. Accordingly in the very night that this woman was burnt, Mrs Garnham, afer her husband was gone to bed, made their head man bring in a diseased sheep, and make a great fire, and burn it to death.
Pretty remarkable stuff for Suffolk in the mid eighteenth-century, though in the west of Britain reports of such things carry on into the mid nineteenth century.
This circumstance gave encouragement to the report of the poor old woman’s being a witch; and they thought sufficient reason was found why her feet and ankles were not burnt, as it was reported, that the feet of the sheep were not, and that they were fixed in the ground when the animal was burnt. This was not true; for the poor creature was burned in the backhouse. Its four legs being tied together, it was laid on the hearth, and a miserable death it had; for soon after the fire began to burn fiercely about it, the bandage on its legs was burnt off, and the distressed sheep jumped up, and ran from the fire: the man than ran a pitch-fork into its body, forced it into the fire again, and held it there till it was destroyed.
Charming! A kind of sympathetic magic then between the sheep and witch burning.

Sunday, November 27, 2011

D.B. Cooper letters

Galen Cook, sent us images and analysis of the letters allegedly sent by D.B. Cooper after his infamous heist. He tells us, "My research shows that four D.B. Cooper letters all surfaced within one week after America's most celebrated, unsolved air hijacking. All four letters were sent to major newspapers, not to the FBI. The sequence and timing of the letters is very important, as they show the "escape route" of D.B. Cooper. They also show a "connection" to our suspect, Bill Gossett."

Letter #1 -- It was sent out from Oakdale, CA on Saturday, November 27, 1971. It reached the Reno Evening Gazette on Monday, November 29, 1971 and was immediately published on page 1 of that evening edition. It reads, "Attention! Thanks for the Hospitality. Was in a rut. D.B. Cooper." It was a cut and paste letter.

It was determined within two days that the letter's words and phrases came from the Friday, November 26, 1971 edition of the Modesto Bee newspaper. Bill Gossett lived in Merced, CA for many years prior to 1971 and his first family was eating T-Giving dinner in Merced the night after Cooper hijacked Northwest Airlines Flight #305. Merced is about 20 miles from Oakdale, CA. The FBI took possession of this letter and it has never been seen since.

Letter #2 -- It was handprinted and mailed from Vancouver, BC Canada to the Vancouver Province editor's office. The Province published the letter on Wednesday, December 1, 1971, but the postage date was Tuesday, November 30, 1971. The letter was taken by the Vancouver Police Department and never seen again."The composite drawing on Page 3 as suspected by FBI does not represent the truth. I enjoyed the Grey Cup game. Am leaving Vancouver now. Thanks for your hospitality. D.B. Cooper"

The Grey Cup game is the Canadian's version of the Superbowl and was played on Sunday, November 28, 1971 in Vancouver. The hijacker first saw the FBI's sketch of himself in the Monday, November 29, 1971 newspaper, and apparently didn't like the drawing by the FBI. The words, "thanks for the hospitality" appeared again in a letter that was sent in Vancouver, BC, a long ways from Reno, Nevada. This is the same author of both letters, a man on the run and taunting the FBI. Gossett liked football, he liked Canada, and he used the phrase "thanks for your hospitality" often.

Letter #3 -- This letter was sent to the Portland Oregonian, however, that paper never published the letter or even discussed the letter in their newspaper. In fact, the Oregonian editors even denied the existence of the letter as did the FBI. The letter did exist and was a cut and paste letter that was mailed to the newspaper from somewhere in Portland with a cancellation date stamped Wednesday, December 1, 1971. The whereabouts of this letter are unknown (although I have seen the envelope to this letter). The letter reads, "Am alive and doing well in home town P.O. The system that beats the system. D.B. Cooper."

My analysis: The letter writer is going back to the original scene of the crime, Portland, and will now thoroughly confuse his pursuers - the FBI. I recently received mysterious e-mails from a person named "Al." He is helping me analyze the Oregonian letter and he claims that this letter was cut from the June and July 1970 issues of Playboy magazine. He used a special "colorization" process to support this assertion. It is one that I examined closely, and he is right. The phrase, "the system that beats the system" was taken from an advertisement in Playboy concerning a particular stereo system manufacturer.

"Al" won't reveal his true identity to me, but I've often wondered if he is a retired FBI agent from the Portland area. And, my research shows that Playboy and its publisher, Hugh Hefner, were the target of a huge FBI file. J. Edgar Hoover thought that Hefner and Playboy were subversive to the American lifestyle and needed to be investigated. Maybe D. B. cooper knew something about this. Gossett was a HUGE fan of Playboy and subscribed for years.

Letter #4 -- This was the last letter and sent again to the Reno Evening Gazette. It was not published, but the newspaper did make mention of it in their Friday, December 3, 1971 edition. It was cut and paste: "Plan ahead for retirement income. D.B. Cooper." The whereabouts of this letter are unknown, but I've heard the FBI took possession of it.

Analysis of all letters: D.B. Cooper got away unscathed on the night of Wednesday, November 24, 1971 and proceeded down to California while his pursuers were looking for him about 35 miles to the north of his actual parachute landing zone. He sent the first letter to let the world know that he was alive. Next, he traveled to Canada with the money and wrote again. I think he took the bus. He left Canada (by bus) and cruised back down to Portland to wave at the FBI who was looking for him 35 miles to the north of Portland. He mailed #3 from the Portland area to further confuse law enforcement. At this point, he's having too much fun. Then he went back down towards Sacramento, CA and sent the final letter, letting everyone know that he was now set for retirement. Gossett would have returned back to the Salt Lake City area and not have sent out any letters from there for fear of being caught.

Friday, November 25, 2011

How Old Is China's “Area 51”?

“The ‘Chinese desert disc’ - some people are comparing it to
the Wilton Windmill 2010 crop picture, which shows a series of concentric rings,
each coded in-to-out radially in 8-bit ASCII.”
- Horace Drew, Retired Geneticist, Sydney, Australia
Left: Unusual feature in China's “Area 51” is a 12-spoke disc with large, white airplanes at the center
about 9 miles (14 km) east of the “air strips” (image below). China disc image by Google Earth,
see coordinates in report below.  Right: Compare to 12-spoke crop formation that had
8-bit ASCII binary code reported May 22, 2010, in yellow flowering oilseed rape
near the Wilton Windmill in Wiltshire, England.
Aerial photograph © 2010 Lucy Pringle.
“I am a retired engineer doing research with Google Earth.
I analyzed image of the ‘Chinese Airport.’ The total outside perimeter
of the left (west) airport is 22,360.6 feet, somewhat precisely the square root of 5.
The outer perimeter of the dark section is 22,360.6 / 16 / A where
A= E -1 = 1.718281828, the fractal portion of natural log base E.
I seriously doubt anybody in modern times would design anything like that.”
- J. D. Branson,

Two “airstrips” described by retired engineer, J. D. Branson,
as 22,360.6 feet long in the China “Area 51” large terraformed region that extends
for 20 miles southwest of the Great Gobi Desert A  near ancient Dunhuang
and about 200 miles west of China's Jiuquan Satellite
Launch Center. Image by Google Earth.

November 19, 2011   Dunhuang, Gansu Province, China - The first images called “China's Area 51” began circulating on the internet and in emails around November 7, 2011. Speculation was they might be geometric targets for satellite calibration. But others argue there are unusual mathematical relationships in the 20-mile wide terraformed complex. The location of the mysterious shapes are southwest of Great Gobi Desert A, Gansu Province, surrounded by a vast region of unpopulated land. Mongolia is to the north and the nearest town is Dunhuang, established in 111 B. C. as a frontier garrison outpost by the Han Dynasty Emperor Wudi. Today's population is 188,000.
China's Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC) is part of the Dongfeng Aerospace City (Base 10) that is located in the Gobi desert about 200 miles (160 km) east of Dunhuang.

China's “Area 51” ground patterns are southwest of the Great Gobi Desert A in
Gansu Province south of Mongolia (center red circle). The nearest town is
Dunhuang (below) that is 1,515 miles (2,438 km) west of Beijing (far right red circle).

Dunhuang (far left red circle), population 188,000, in Gansu Province southwest of
the Great Gobi Desert A and Mongolia and about 200 miles west
of China's Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC), part of the
Dongfeng Aerospace City (Base 10), far right red circle.

Dunhuang, Gansu province, China, has ruins of an ancient Chinese watchtower
from the Han Dynasty (202 BC - 220 A.D.), located along what was the old line
of rammed-earth fortifications that once stretched from the Hexi Corridor (in Gansu)
to the Tarim Basin (in modern Xinjiang). It was a major stop on the ancient Silk Road.
It was also known at times as Shazhou, or ‘City of Sands’, a name still used today.
It is best known for the nearby Dunhuang Caves containing some of the finest examples
of Buddhist art spanning 1,000 years. January 27, 2008, image by the Real Bear.

I forwarded the Google Earth images to Horace R. Drew, Ph.D., molecular biologist and expert in DNA structure, who lives in Sydney, Australia. He is also known as “Red Collie.” Collie has studied crop formations for astronomical and mathematical information that might relate to our sun and solar system. I included the URL,, and asked him, “Could you do a reality check on the lat/long in this possibly important email? I would appreciate seeing whatever images you yourself can download that corroborate, further detail or contradict the information about this China site.” That same day, I received this reply from him.
From:   Red Collie
Subject:   Important Fwd: China
Date: November 7, 2011
To: Linda Moulton Howe <>
1st Batch of 10 Google images, Nov. 7, 2011
Dear Linda, there are 8 highly anomalous surface objects in that mountainous area on Google Earth.
Here are a series of overview or close-up images. I do not claim to know what any of it means!

Google Earth satellite image with latitudes and longitudes superimposed for location
identification, one of many mysterious ground patterns in a remote area referred to as
“China's Area 51” stretching for some 20 miles southwest of the Great Gobi Desert A
in Gansu Province south of Mongolia and about 200 miles west of China's Jiuquan
Satellite Launch Center (JSLC), part of the Dongfeng Aerospace City (Base 10).

Next batch of Google images from Red Collie, also on Nov. 7, 2011

From  “Mysterious Site in China
“Compare “China's Area 51” to Nazca, Peru, geoglyphs that date back to around 400 A. D.

6-mile-long Nazca, Peru, “airstrip” embedded in the desert land between the Pacific Ocean
and the Andes Mountains, dating back to around 400 A. D. Image © by Manny Panta.

“Could these geoglyphs be effigies of ancient animal gods or patterns of constellations? Are they roads, star pointers, maybe even a gigantic map? If the people who lived here 2,000 years ago had only a simple technology, how did they manage to construct such precise figures? Did they have a plan? If so, who ordained it? It all seems so otherworldly. To comprehend the Nasca lines, created by the removal of desert rock to reveal the pale pink sand beneath, visitors have proposed every imaginable explanation - from runways for spaceships to tracks for Olympic athletes, from op art to pop art, to astronomical observatories.
It is believed that the geoglyphs were built by a people called the Nasca - but why? And they created these wonders of the world has defied explanation.
Near the eastern edge of Dunhuang, there are many "square outlines" that might be related to a military base?”

Writing for in an article entitled, “Mysterious Marks Near Dunhuang, China,” retired engineering manager and pilot J. D. Branson asked about the unexplained China Google Earth images: “Perhaps it is a military installation; however, a few of the areas are difficult to interpret. One of the ‘landing strips’ looks ancient with erosion marks. Go to Google earth and enters the latitude and longitude coordinates:
China Area 51 desert “Drawings” Coordinates:
Latitude: 40°28'43.07"N      Longitude: 93°28'36.42"E
“You can move the cursor around and see that the marks are not built up in elevation as an airport would be. Road graders and compactors are needed to pack a field sufficiently to safely take the extreme pressure that landing gears make at times. Any yielding of the dirt would cause the plane to spin out of control. Of course, there are no support buildings or taxiways to parking areas.”

How old is this Chinese landing strip in the photo labeled yellow 3, 4 and 5 above? J. D. Branson described his analysis of the above “Chinese Airport” features:  “ The total outside perimeter of the left (west) airport is 22,360.6 feet, somewhat precisely the square root of 5. The outer perimeter of the dark section is 22,360.6 / 16 / A where A= E -1 = 1.718281828, the fractal portion of natural log base E. I seriously doubt anybody in modern times would design anything like that.
“One may also see that common truck traffic has made tracks out across a number of the marks and therefore it cannot be paved or a prepared surface. If the marks were graded and compacted, they would be nearly perfectly level lengthwise and side to side. When tracing the contour with Google Earth, they still show the general contour of the area around them. Even the darker colored areas which one might be tempted to think are paved show signs of erosion.

“There are some simple considerations to prove the designs are inter-related. Both perimeters of the two ‘air strips’ are 22,360.6 feet in length, plus or minus a few feet, which is the square root of 5 = 2.236068. This is also the source number for the sacred number of phi (1.618033989) used repeatedly in natural events.
“I am not at all certain why the center and the right mark show up so brightly on Google earth, but I have seen this type of phenomena before and it could be something in the Google software that causes it to be so pronounced.

J. D. Branson:  “These marks could contain an encyclopedia of data if one breaks the coding. Above in my yellow text over photo, the square in bottom left is not only oriented true north at an azimuth of 360 degrees (also zero), but the length is 2777.77 feet, which is the reciprocal of 36 times 10,000. This seems likely some type of signal to provide methodologies for more complex solutions. Note the water erosion across some of the grid pattern, again indicating it could be really ancient.”

Email Nov. 9 from Mike Reed, retired Arizona State University astronomer:

White square on far left (west) “is actually a slag pile. Where is the material coming from?”

Mike Reed:  “I looked at the China site closely. The white square (to the West) is actually a slag pile. If you look at the southern edges they show a near vertical piling of material. It reminds me of some of the piles I've seen near large Arizona mines. Where is the material coming from? Tunnels, underground facilities, very interesting!

The white line formations look to be a very thin coating on the surface and the pattern looks pretty arbitrary. Targets for ID from space? If you follow the road going East it eventually passes by a fairly large complex of buildings with blue patches on the roof out in the middle of nowhere.???”

Is This A Binary-Coded Disc with Planes At Center?
Another unusual feature is located about 9 miles (14 km) east of the “air strips.” This terraformed disc has some large, white airplanes at its center.

Is this a binary-coded disc? Why are there large planes at the center?